Monday, November 5, 2012

Bubble tea

Bubble tea, also known as pearl milk teaboba milk tea, or boba is a tea-based drink invented in tea shops in TaichungTaiwan, during the 1980s.[1] Most bubble tea recipes contain a tea base mixed with fruit or milk. Ice-blended versions are usually mixed with fruit or syrup, resulting in a slushy consistency. Most bubble teas come with small chewy tapioca balls (粉圓, fěnyuán), commonly called "pearls" (珍珠, zhēnzhū) or "boba" (波霸,bōbà).[2]
There are many variants of the drinks, and many kinds of types are used and ingredients added. The most popular bubble drinks are bubble milk tea with tapioca and bubble milk green tea with tapioca.[2]


Honeydew flavored bubble tea
Bubble teas are generally of two distinct types: fruit-flavored teas and milk teas. However, some shops offer hybrid "fruit milk teas". Most milk teas include powdered dairy or non-dairy creamers, but some shops also offer fresh milk as an alternative. Other varieties are 100% crushed-fruit smoothies with tapioca pearls and signature ice cream shakes made from local ice cream sources. Many American bubble tea vendors sell "milk smoothies", which are similar to bubble tea but do not contain any tea ingredients. Some small cafés offer sweetener substitutes such as honey, agavestevia, and aspartame upon special request.
The oldest known bubble tea consisted of a mixture of hot Taiwanese black tea, small tapioca pearls (粉圓), condensed milk, and syrup (糖漿) or honey. Many variations were created, the most common of which is served cold rather than hot. The tea type is frequently replaced. First was bubble green tea, which uses jasmine-infused green tea (茉香綠茶) instead of black tea. Big tapioca pearls (波霸/黑珍珠) were adapted and quickly replaced the small pearls.[3] Peach or plum flavoring appeared, then more fruit flavors were added until, in some variations, the tea was removed entirely in favor of real fruit. These fruit versions sometimes contain colored pearls (and/or "jelly cubes" as in the related drink taho), the color chosen to match whatever fruit juice is used. Flavors may be added in the form of powder, fruit juice, pulp, or syrup to hot black or green tea, which is then shaken in a cocktail shaker or mixed with ice in a blender. Cooked tapioca pearls and other mix-ins (such as honey, syrup, and sugar) are added at the end.
Today, one can find shops entirely devoted to bubble tea, similar to the juice bars of the early 1990s. Some cafés use plastic dome-shaped lids, while other bubble tea bars serve it using a machine to seal the top of the cup with plastic cellophane. This allows the tea to be shaken in the serving cup and makes it spill-free until one is ready to drink it. The cellophane is then pierced with an oversized straw large enough to allow the pearls to pass through.
Today, in Taiwan, it's more common for people to refer to the drink as "pearl milk tea" (zhen zhu). "Pearl milk tea" is also used by English speakers and overseas Chinese and Taiwanese speakers, but it is usually called bubble tea.



A page from the Hunmin Jeong-eum Eonhae. The Hangul-only column, third from the left (나랏말ᄊᆞ미), has pitch-accent diacritics to the left of the syllable blocks.
Hangul was promulgated by Sejong the Great, the fourth king of the Joseon Dynasty. TheHall of Worthies (Jiphyeonjeon, 집현전) is often credited for the work.[5]
The project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, and described in 1446 in a document titled Hunmin Jeongeum ("The Proper Sounds for the Education of the People"), after which the alphabet itself was named.[3] The publication date of the Hunmin Jeong-eum,October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent is on January 15.
Various speculations about the creation process were put to rest by the discovery in 1940 of the 1446 Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye ("Hunmin Jeong-eum Explanation and Examples"). This document explains the design of the consonant letters according to articulatory phoneticsand the vowel letters according to the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony.
In explaining the need for the new script, King Sejong explained that the Korean language was fundamentally different from Chinese; using Chinese characters (known as hanja) to write was so difficult for the common people that only privileged aristocrats (yangban, 양반), usually male, could read and write fluently. The majority of Koreans were effectively illiterate before the invention of Hangul.
Hangul was designed so that even a commoner could learn to read and write; the Haeryesays "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; a stupid man can learn them in the space of ten days."[6]
Hangul faced opposition by the literary elite, such as Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars in the 1440s, who believed hanja to be the only legitimate writing system, and perhaps saw hangul as a threat to their status.[5] However, it entered popular culture as Sejong had intended, being used especially by women and writers of popular fiction.[7] It was effective enough at disseminating information among the uneducated that Yeonsangun, the paranoid tenth king, forbade the study or use of Hangul and banned Hangul documents in 1504,[8] and King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun (언문청 諺文廳, governmental institution related to Hangul research) in 1506.[9]
The late 16th century, however, saw a revival of Hangul, with gasa literature and later sijo flourishing. In the 17th century, Hangul novels became a major genre.[10] By this point spelling had become quite irregular.[7]
The first book using hangul in the West was brought to Europe by Isaac Titsingh in 1796. His small library included Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu (三国通覧図説 An Illustrated Description of Three Countries?) by Hayashi Shihei.[11] This book, which was published in Japan in 1785, described the Joseon Kingdom[12] and hangul.[13] In 1832, the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland supported the posthumous abridged publication of Titsingh's French translation.[14]
Due to growing Korean nationalism in the 19th century, the Gabo Reformists' push, and the promotion of Hangul in schools and literature by Western missionaries,[15] Hangul was adopted in official documents for the first time in 1894.[8] Elementary school texts began using Hangul in 1895, and the Dongnip Sinmun, established in 1896, was the first newspaper printed in both Hangul and English.[16] Still, the literary elites continued to use Chinese characters, and the majority of Koreans remained illiterate at this period.
During Colonial Rule in 1910, Japanese became the official language. However, Hangul was taught in the Korean-established schools of colonial Korea built after the annexation, and Korean was written in a mixed Hanja-Hangul script, where most lexical roots were written in Hanja and grammatical forms in Hangul. Japan had banned earlier Korean literature, and public schooling became mandatory for children. For the majority of Koreans in those times, this was their first time learning Hangul. The orthography was partially standardized in 1912, with 'ㆍ(arae a)' , which is one of the vowels in early hangul and is not used in modern hangul, restricted to Sino-Korean, the emphatic consonants written ㅺ sg, ㅼ sd, ㅽ sb, ㅆ ss, ㅾ sj, and final consonants restricted to ㄱ g, ㄴ n, ㄹ l, ㅁ m, ㅂ b, ㅅ s, ㅇng, ㄺ lg, ㄻ lm, ㄼ lb (no ㄷ d, as it was replaced by s). Long vowels were marked by a diacritic dot to the left of the syllable, but this was dropped in 1921.[7]
A second colonial reform occurred in 1930. Arae a was abolished; the emphatic consonants were changed to ㄲ gg, ㄸ dd, ㅃ bb, ㅆss, ㅉ jj; more final consonants (ㄷㅈㅌㅊㅍㄲㄳㄵㄾㄿㅄ) were allowed, making the orthography more morphophonemic; ㅆ ss was written alone (without a vowel) when it occurred between nouns; and the nominative particle 가 ga was introduced after vowels, replacing ㅣ i. (ㅣ i had been written without an ㅇ iung. The nominative particle had been unvarying i in Sejong's day, and perhaps up to the eighteenth or nineteenth century.)[7]
Ju Sigyeong, who had coined the term Hangul "great script" to replace eonmun "vulgar script" in 1912, established the Korean Language Research Society (朝鮮語研究會; later renamed Hangul Society, 한글學會) which further reformed orthography withStandardized System of Hangul (한글 맞춤법 통일안) in 1933. The principal change was to make Hangul as morphophonemic as practical given the existing letters.[7] A system for transliterating foreign orthographies was published in 1940.
However, the Korean language was banned from schools in 1938 as part of a policy of cultural assimilation,[17] and all Korean-language publications were outlawed in 1941.[18]
The definitive modern orthography was published in 1946, just after independence from colonial rule. In 1948 North Korea attempted to make the script perfectly morphophonemic through the addition of new letters, and in 1953 Syngman Rhee in South Korea attempted to simplify the orthography by returning to the colonial orthography of 1921, but both reforms were abandoned after only a few years.[7]
Both Koreas have used Hangul or mixed Hangul as their sole official writing system, with ever-decreasing use of hanja. Since the 1950s, it has become uncommon to find hanja in commercial or unofficial writing in the South, with some South Korean newspapers only using hanja as abbreviations or disambiguation of homonyms. There has been widespread debate as to the future of hanja in South Korea. North Korea instated Hangul as its exclusive writing system in 1949, and banned the use of hanja completely.

Deer Facts

White-Tailed Deer Fact Sheet

Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Genus: Odocoileus
Species: virginianus

Range: Most of North America, except for extreme northern and western parts; Central America; and northern South America.

Status of the Species: The white-tailed deer today in the United States occupy more habitats over a greater range and in larger numbers than ever before. At the start of this century, they had been eliminated from most of their range in a number of states. The species occurs in low numbers in much of Central America and northern South America. Their low density in these areas stems from overhunting.

Status of the SRS Deer Herd: 
The white-tailed deer on the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C., had been reduced to very low numbers, perhaps only a couple of dozen deer in the swamp and lowland forests, during the early 1950s. Whit the establishment of the SRS, the herd expanded to more than 5,000 deer, and hunting during the fall and early winter commenced in the late 1960s. The current herd size is slightly more than 4,000 after annual hunts. The herd has an even sex ratio, high levels of genetic diversity, and deer are in good condition as measured by the amount of body fat. Because of hunting, few deer live beyond four years of age.

Habitat Description: White-tailed deer occur in every habitat on the SRS, except in the deep swamp. It is naturally considered a forest species, occuring on the edge of forest openings.

Breeding Biology: Whitetails are seasonal breeders with the peak occurring in early November, and the majority of all breeding occurs within one month before and after this time. On average, 40 percent of females breed their first year as fawns and nearly 100 percent of adult females breed during each year of their life. Females have one, two or occasionally three offspring. The usual number is two. On average, there are about 180 offspring produced per 100 females in the population each year.

Feeding Biology: Whitetails are predominately browsers, feeding on shrubs, vines, woody stems and both soft and hard mast. They even eat poison ivy as unwary hunters have found out when sorting through their rumen contents. Deer rarely graze on grass species.

Research: Scientists at the University of Georgia have studied white- tailed deer on the SRS since the late 1950s. Scientists have written more than 100 scientific papers, theses or dissertations, and reports about this species on the SRS. These publications have involved more than 100 researchers at more than 30 universities.

The SRS deer are among the best studied genetically of any mammalian population. White-tailed deer is one of the keystone species on the SRS -- it can affect most other terrestrial animal and plant species. Ecology Lab scientists have studied most aspects of the biology of this species. Studies have focused on prenatal and postnatal growth patterns, body condition, fat dynamics, radioecology, mineral cycling, genetics, antler development, food habits, habitat relationships, reproductive biology, developmental asymmetry, age structure, population fluctuations, and number of car accidents involving deer. The number of deer on the SRS is primarily controlled by the harvest of deer by hunters, and a correlation exists between the rate and magnitude of change in deer-car accidents and the number of deer.

Interesting Facts:
1. Whitetails are the most popular big-game species in North America.
2. There are more whitetails today in the United States than there were when Columbus discovered America.
3. Whitetails provide millions of people with recreation, food, clothing, decorations and even utensils.
4. Whitetails are among the most genetically variable mammals studied.
5. Whitetails on the SRS can almost double their number every year, and with this high reproductive rate and lack of predators, they can rapidly become a problem because of their effects on the vegetation of an area and their propensity to cause car accidents.

Chord SNSD- Kissing You

D Em G D (2x) 

Doo doo roo~ doo doo doo
Kissing you baby~
Doo doo roo~ doo doo doo
Loving you baby~

          D                         G
[Seohyun] Jangnan seuruhn nuheh kiseueh gibooni choa
        Bm                 Em
[Yoona] Giyuhbge saechimhan pyojuhng jiuhdo

          D                                Em              
[Taeyeon] Uhneu saenga naneun soongnyuh chorom nae ibsooreun
          G                               A
[Taeyeon] Sageunsageun geudae ireum booreujyo

[All] Geudaewa bareul matchoomyuh guhdgo, nuheh doo soneul japgo, 
Ni uhddae-eh gidaeuh marhago shipo
        Em                                  Am             A          
[Sunny] Gomawo saranghae haengbok man joolgeyo Kissing you oh my love

[All] Naeireun ddaseuhan haetsal sogeh nuhneun nae yuhpeh noowuh
G                           C
Saranghae norael boolruhjoomyuh oosuhjwo
       Bm                    E                  G
[Yuri] dal gom han saranghae giboon chohan hanmadi

Doo doo roo~ doo doo doo
Kissing you baby~
Doo doo roo~ doo doo doo
Loving you baby~

          D                        G
[Tiffany] Nooneul gamgo nuheh ibsooreh kiseureul hamyuhn
          Bm                    Em
[Hyoyeon] Nae boreun pingkeubit moori deuruhdo

          D                       Em
[Jessica] Nae maeumeun imi nuhmuhgago nae gaseumen
          G                                A
[Jessica] Doogeundoogeun shimjangsori deulijyo

[All] Geudaewa bareul matchoomyuh guhdgo, nuheh doo soneul japgo, 
Ni uhddae-eh gidaeuh marhago shipo
        Em                                  Am             A          
[Sunny] Gomawo saranghae haengbok man joolgeyo Kissing you oh my love

[All] Naeireun ddaseuhan haetsal sogeh nuhneun nae yuhpeh noowuh
G                           C
Saranghae norael boolruhjoomyuh oosuhjwo
       Bm                    E                  G
[Yuri] dal gom han saranghae giboon chohan hanmadi

                    D                 Em                  D
[Sunny] Saranghae saranghae nuhmaneul saranghae haneul mankeum
                  C#m                   F#m
[Taeyeon] Uhnjena haengbokhageh hwanhan ooseum joolgeh
             Em                 A               D
[Jessica] Nuhmaneh sojoonghan yoja chingu yaksokhae

[Seohyun] Nuhneun nae yuhpeh itgo, nayeh doo nooneh itgo, 
          G                             Cm                              D#                      
[Seohyun] Nuheh poomanen hangsang naega isseurgeh (Jessica: naega isseurgeh~)

Turn Up 1 step      
[All] Geudaewa bareul matchoomyuh guhdgo, nuheh doo soneul japgo, 
Ni uhddae-eh gidaeuh malhago shipo
[Taeyeon] Gomawo saranghae haengbokman joolgeyo Kissing you oh my love
[All] Naeireun ddaseuhan haetsal sogeh nuhneun nae yuhpeh noowuh
Saranghae norael boolruhjoomyuh oosuhjwo
[Tiffany] Dalkomhan saranghae giboon chohan hanmadi

[Jessica] Darkomhan sarangeh giboon chohan
[Seohyun]Saranghae hanmadi


Hanbok (South Korea) or Chosŏn-ot (North Korea) is the traditional Korean dress. It is often characterized by vibrant colors and simple lines without pockets. Although the term literally means "Korean clothing", hanbok today often refers specifically to hanbok ofJoseon Dynasty and is worn as semi-formal or formal wear during traditional festivals and celebrations. The modern hanbok does not exactly follow the actual style as worn in Joseon dynasty since it went through some major changes during the 20th century for practical reasons.[1]
Throughout history, Korea had a dual clothing tradition, in which rulers and aristocrats adopted different kinds of mixed foreign-influenced indigenous styles, while the commoners continued to use a distinct style of indigenous clothing that today is known as Hanbok.[2][3]

Basic Composition and Design

Traditional women's hanbok consists of jeogori, a blouse shirt or a jacket and chima, a wrap-around skirt, which is usually worn full. The ensemble is often called chima jeogori. Men's hanbok consists of jeogori and baji which means pants in Korea. The baji[1] were baggy pants in traditional men's hanbok.


Jeogori and chima
Jeogori is the basic upper garment of the hanbok, which has been worn by both men and women. It covers the arms and upper part of the wearer's body.[4][5][6] The basic form of ajeogori consists of gilgitdongjeonggoreum and sleeves. Gil (길) is the large section of the garment in both front and back side and git (깃) is a band of fabric that trims the collar.Dongjeong (동정) is a removable white collar placed over the end of the git and is generally squared off. The goreum (고름) are coat-strings that tie the jeogori.[1] Women's jeogori may have kkeutdong (끝동), a different colored cuff placed at the end of the sleeves. There are two jeogori that may be the earliest surviving archaeological finds. One from a Yangcheon Heo Clan tomb is dated 1400-1450,[7] while the other was discovered inside a statue of Buddha at Sangwonsa Temple (presumably left as an offering) that has been dated to the 1460s.[8]
The form of Jeogori has changed over time.[6] While men's jeogori remained relatively unchanged, women's jeogori dramatically shortened during Joseon dynasty, reaching its shortest length at the late 19th century. However, due to reformation efforts and practical reasons, modern jeogori for women is longer than its earlier counterpart. Nonetheless the length is still above the waist line. Traditionally, goreum were short and narrow, however modern goreum are rather long and wide. There are several types of jeogori according to fabric, sewing technique, and shape.[6][7]


Chima refers to "skirt" which is also called sang () or gun () in hanja.[4][5][6] The underskirt, or petticoat layer is called sokchima. According to remaining murals of Goguryeo, and an earthen toy excavated from the neighborhood of Hwangnam-dongGyeongju, Goguryo women wore a chima first, and then jeogori over the chima, covering its belt.[9][10]
Although striped, patchwork skirts, and gored skirts are known from the Goguryeo period,[5] from the Joseon dynasty at least skirts were made from rectangular cloth that was pleated or gathered into a skirt band.[11] This waistband extended past the skirt fabric itself, and formed ties so that the skirt could be fastened around the trunk of the body.[12]
Sokchima was largely made in a similar way to the overskirts until the early 20th century when straps were added,[13] later developing into a sleeveless bodice or 'reformed' petticoat.[14] By the mid 20th century, some outer chima had also gained a sleeveless bodice, that was then covered by the jeogori.[15][15]


Baji refers to the bottom part of the men's hanbok. It is the formal term for 'pants' in Korean. Compared to western style pants, it does not fit tightly. The roomy nature of the cloth is due to a design aimed at making the cloth ideal for sitting on the floor.[16] It performs similar role today for modern trousers, but Baji is commonly used in Korea for any kinds of pants. There are two in front of baji, and a person can tighten up whenever needed.


Po is a generic term referring to an outer robe or overcoat, which was worn mostly by men since the Goryeo period until the Joseon period.[4][5] Durumagi is a variety of po that was worn to protect the cold. It had been widely worn as an outer robe over jeogori and baji. It is also called jumagui, juchaui, or juui.[4][5][6]

[edit]Jokki and magoja

Jokki (조끼) is a type of vest while magoja is an outer jacket. Although jokki and magoja were created at the end of the Joseon Dynasty in which the Western culture began to affect Korea, the garments have been considered parts of traditional clothing. Each is additionally worn over jeogori for warmth and style. Magoja was an originally Manchu style clothing, but was introduced to Korea afterHeungseon Daewongun, the father of King Gojong returned from his political exile in Manchuria in 1887.[6][17] Magoja derived frommagwae that he wore at that time to protect cold weather of the region. It was good to keep warmth and easy to wear, so that magoja became popular in Korea. It is also called "deot jeogori" (literally "an outer jeogori") or magwae.[6]
Magoja does not have git, band of fabric that trims the collar,[1] goreum (tying strings) unlike jeogori and durumagi (overcoat). Magojawas originally a male garment, but later became a unisex clothing. The magoja for men has seop (섶, overlapped column on the front) and its length is longer than women's magoja, so that its both sides of the bottom are open. A magoja is made of a silk and is adorned with one or two buttons which are usually made from amber. In a male magoja, buttons are attached to the right side on contrary to women's magoja.[6]
At first, women wore the magoja for style rather than as a daily outfit and especially Kaeseong people used to wear it a lot. It is made of a silk and the color for women tends to be a neutral color to harmonize with other garments such as jeogori and chima which are worn together. In spring and autumn, a pastel tone is used for the women's magoja, so that wearers could wear it over a jeogori for style. As for men's magoja worn during spring and summer, jade, green, gray, dark grey were used.[6]

[edit]Children's hanbok

Children's hanbok
In old days, Kkachi durumagi (literally "a magpie's overcoat") were worn as seolbim (설빔), new clothing and shoes worn on Seolnal, New Year's Day in the Korean calendar, while at present, it is worn as a ceremonial garment for doljanchi, celebration for a baby's first birthday.[18] It is a children's colorful overcoat.[19] It was worn mostly by young boys.[20] The clothes is also called obangjang durumagi which means "an overcoat of five directions".[18] It was worn over jeogori (a jacket) and jokki (a vest) while the wearer could put jeonbok (a long vest) over it. Kkachi durumagi was also worn along with headgear such as bokgeon (a peaked cloth hat),[21][22] hogeon (peaked cloth hat with a tiger pattern) for young boys orgulle (decorative headgear) for young girls.[5][23]
Modern hanbok for children consists of only two or three pieces and can be put on easily. They are usually made of less expensive fabrics since they are only worn once or twice a year during bigger holidays like Chuseok and Seolnal. Children are also dressed up in hanbok on their first birthday, dol.[24][25]


Hwarot, bride clothes.
Hanbok is classified according to its purposes: everyday dress, ceremonial dress and special dress. Ceremonial dresses are worn on formal occasions, including a child's first birthday, a wedding or a funeral. Special dresses are made for shamans and officials.[16]



The hanbok can trace its origin to nomadic clothing in the Scytho-Siberian cultural sphere of northern Asia, widespread in ancient times.[26][27] The earliest evidence of this common style of northern Asia can be found in the Xiongnu burial site of Noin Ula in northern Mongolia,[28] and earliest evidence of hanbok's basic design features can be traced to ancient wall murals of Goguryeo before the 3rd century BCE.[29][30]
Reflecting its nomadic origins in northern Asia, hanbok was designed to facilitate ease of movement and also incorporated many shamanistic motifs. From this time, the basic structure of hanbok, namely the jeogori jacket, baji pants, and the chima skirt, was established. Short, tight trousers and tight, waist-length jackets were worn by both men and women during the early years of the Three Kingdoms of Korea period. The basic structure and these basic design features of hanbok remains relatively unchanged to this day.[31]
Toward the end of the Three Kingdoms period, noblewomen began to wear full-length skirts and hip-length jackets belted at the waist and noblemen began to wear roomy trousers bound in at the ankles and a narrow, tunic-style jacket cuffed at the wrists and belted at the waist.
Although most foreign influence on Hanbok didn't last or was superficial, Mongolian clothing is an exception as the only foreign influence that made significant visible changes to Hanbok. After Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392) signed peace treaty with the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, Mongolian princesses who married into Korean royal house brought with them Mongolian fashion which began to prevail in both formal and private life.[27][32][33] As a result of this influence, the chima skirt was shortened, and jeogori was hiked up above the waist and tied at the chest with a long, wide ribbon, the goruem (instead of being belted) and the sleeves were curved slightly. Cultural exchange was not one way however. Goryeo had significant cultural influence on the Mongol court of Yuan Dynasty, the most visible of which was adoption of women's hanbok by the aristocrats, queens and concubines of the Mongol court.[34][35][36]

[edit]Joseon dynasty

The early Joseon dynasty appeared to continue the women's fashion for baggy, loose clothing, such as those seen on the mural from the tomb of Bak Ik (1332–1398).[37] However, by the 16th century, the jeogori had shortened to the waist, and appears to have become closer fitting, although not to the extremes of the bell-shaped silhouette of the 18th and 19th centuries.[38][39][40]
Today's hanbok is the direct descendant of hanbok as worn in the Joseon dynasty period, specifically the late 19th century. Hanbok had gone through various changes and "fashion fads" during the five hundred years under the reigns of Joseon kings and eventually evolved to what we now mostly relate to as a typical hanbok.

[edit]Everyday wear

During the Joseon Dynasty, the chima or skirt adopted fuller volumn while the jeogori or blouse took more tightened and shortened form, which are features quite distinct from the hanbok of previous centuries, when chima was rather slim and jeogori baggy and long, reaching well below the waist level. After the Imjin War economic hardship on the peninsula may have influenced the closer-fitting styles that would use less fabric.[40] However, this explanation doesn't take into account the ever expanding voluminous size of the dress which must have increased the use of fabric despite the disastrous effects of the war.
In the eighteenth century, the short lenghth of jeogori reached extremity as to scarcely cover the breasts. Therefore women of respectable social backgrounds began to wear a piece of long cloth called heoritti around the breast. Heoritti was originally worn as an undergarment beneath the jeogori, but was now worn as an outwear. The common and lowborn classes, however, often eschewed theheoritti altogether, as a way of indicating that they had given birth to a son.[41] This also may have assisted with breastfeeding.
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the fullness of the skirt was concentratrated around the hips, thus forming a silhouette similar to Western bustles. The fullness of the skirt reached its extreme around 1800. During the nineteenth century fullness of the skirt was achieved around the knees and ankles thus giving chima a triangular or an A-shaped silhouette, which is still the preferred style to this day. Many undergarments such as darisokgot, soksokgot, dansokgot, and gojengi were worn underneath to achieve desired forms.
A clothes reformation movement, which aimed to lengthen jeogori, experienced quite a success in the early twentieth century and has continued to influence the shaping of modern hanbok. Modern jeogori are longer, although still halfway between the waistline and the breasts. Heoritti are sometimes exposed for aesthetic reasons. At the end of nineteenth century, Daewon-gun introduced Magoja, aManchu-style jacket, to Korea, which is often worn over jeogori to this day.
Male aristocrat dress; a gat (a horsehairhat) on the head and yellow dopo (an overcoat).
Men's hanbok saw little change compared to women's hanbok. The form and design ofjeogori and baji hardly changed.
However, men's lengthy outwear, equivalent of modern overcoat went through quite a dramatic change. Before the late 19th century, yangban men almost always worejungchimak when going abroad. Jungchimak had very lengthy sleeves and its lower part had splits on both sides and occasionally on the back so as to create fluttering effect when walking. To some this was considered fashionable, and to some, namely stoic scholars, it was nothing but pure vanity. Daewon-gun successfully banned jungchimak as a part of his clothes reformation program and jungchimak eventually disappeared.
Durumagi, which was previously worn underneath jungchimak and basically a house dress substituted jungchimak as the formal outwear for yangban men. Durumagi differs from its predecessor in that it has tighter sleeves and does not have splits on either sides and the back. It is also slightly shorter in length. Men's hanbok has remained relatively the same since the adoption of durumagi.

[edit]Hanbok for formal occasions

Heuk dallyeongpo in the late 18th century
Gwanbok is a Korean term which refers to all formal attires of government officials. It began to be worn since Silla period until Joseon Dynasty. During the Silla period, the official robe systems of Central Asia was imported and put into practice.[9] There were several types of gwanbok which differs in color and design according to the wearer's status, rank, and occasion such as jobokjeboksangbok,gongbokyungbok, and gunbok.
Jobok was the gwanbok worn for special occasions such as national festivals, or announcement of royal decrees. Jebok was the gwanbok worn while an ancestor veneration ritual called jesa was held.Sangbok was worn as a daily official clothing while gongbok was worn when officers had an audience with the king at the palace. Yungbok was related to military affairs.
However, as the term in a narrow scope only denote the gongbok and sangbok, it means dallyeong, robe with a round collar.[42][43]

[edit]Material and Color

The upper classes wore hanbok of closely woven ramie cloth or other high-grade lightweight materials in warm weather and of plain and patterned silks the rest of the year. Commoners were restricted by law as well as resources to cotton at best.
The upper classes wore a variety of colors, though bright colors were generally worn by children and girls and subdued colors by middle-aged men and women. Commoners were restricted by law to everyday clothes of white, but for special occasions they wore dull shades of pale pink, light green, gray, and charcoal. The color of chima showed the wearer's social position and statement. For example, a navy color indicated that a woman had son(s). Only the royal family could wear clothing with geumbak-printed patterns (gold leaf) on the bottom of chima.

[edit]Head dresses

A woman wearing a wig, or gache.
Both male and female wore their hair in a long braid until they were married, at which time the hair was knotted; man's hair was knotted in a topknot called sangtu (상투) on the top of the head and the woman’s hair was rolled into a ball shaped form and was set just above the nape of the neck.
A long pin, or binyeo (비녀), was thrust through the knotted hair of the woman as both a fastener and a decoration. The material and length of the binyeo varied according to the wearer’s class and status. Women wore a jokduri on their wedding day, and wore an ayam for protection from the cold. Men wore agat, which varied according to class and status.
Before 19th century women of high social backgrounds and gisaeng wore wigs (gache). Like their Western counterparts, Koreans considered bigger and heavier wigs to be more desirable and aesthetic. Such was the women's frenzy for the gache that in 1788 King Jeongjo prohibited and banned, by royal decree, the use of gache, as they were deemed contrary to Korean Confucian values of reserve and restraint[44]
In the 19th century yangban women began to wear jokduri, a small hat that substituted gache. However gache enjoyed vast popularity in gisaeng circles well into the end of the century.

[edit]Foreign influence

Some foreign-styled clothing was adopted by the upper class, but its use was always separate from the tradition of hanbok, and was eventually replaced by Western influences. With increasing cultural ties between Korea and China since the latter half of the Three Kingdoms period, the aristocratic class and rulers started adopting traditional style of Chinese clothes very different from Hanbok. Unlike the aristocrats, the majority of commoners continued to use Hanbok, and many aristocrats also continued to use Hanbok for less formal occasions or at the comfort of their homes.[3]
As Silla unified the Three Kingdoms of Korea, various foreign cultures and systems were imported from Tang China. In the process, the latest fashion trend of Luoyang, the capital of Tang, were also introduced to Korea. This fashion was similar to the Western empire stylebut differed from the Korean style in that women wore a skirt over a jacket to make the body slim. After the unification, Korean women started wearing the new style, which was popular not only in China but also in countries influenced by the Silk Road exchange. The style was, however, discontinued during the Goryeo dynasty, the next ruling state of Korea.[9][10] Dallyeong, a style of clothing from nomadic cultures of Western Asia, was introduced via Tang China and was adopted as the official robe system, Gwanbok, in the 4th century until the 17th century.[45]
Beginning in the late 19th century, use of hanbok was entirely replaced by new Western imports such as the Western suit and dress. Today, formal and casual wears are usually based on Western styles, while Hanbok is still used for traditional purposes.